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Morpholinos in protists

Morpholinos have been used to alter gene expression in various protists. Here is a citation list.


Judd M, Place AR. A Strategy for Gene Knockdown in Dinoflagellates. Microorganisms. 2022;10:1131. doi:10.3390/microorganisms10061131
Endo-Porter delivery of Morpholinos into a cultured dinoflagellate


Zhang X, Kim CY, Worthen T, Witola WH. Morpholino-mediated in vivo silencing of Cryptosporidium parvum lactate dehydrogenase decreases oocyst shedding and infectivity. Int J Parasitol. 2018 Mar 9. pii: S0020-7519(18)30056-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.01.005. [Epub ahead of print]
ip injection in infected mice; Vivo-MO started 1 day prior to infection; CpLDH decreases oocyte shedding in fecal pellets.

Witola WH, Zhang X, Kim CY. Targeted gene knockdown validates the essential role of lactate dehydrogenase in Cryptosporidium parvum. Int J Parasitol. 2017 Jun 9. pii: S0020-7519(17)30166-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2017.05.002. [Epub ahead of print]


Tang D, Wang X, Dong J, Li Y, Gao F, Xie H, Zhao C. Morpholino-Mediated Knockdown of Ciliary Genes in Euplotes vannus, a Novel Marine Ciliated Model Organism. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:254 doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.549781


Kim J, Park EA, Shin MY, Park SJ. Functional Differentiation of Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Giardia lamblia. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Mar 6:e0491922. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.04919-22. Online ahead of print. Park EA, Kim J, Shin MY, Park SJ. Kinesin-13, a Motor Protein, is Regulated by Polo-like Kinase in Giardia lamblia. Korean J Parasitol. 2022 Jun;60(3):163-172. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2022.60.3.163. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Steele-Ogus MC, Obenaus AM, Sniadecki NJ, Paredez AR. Disc and actin-associated Protein 1 influences attachment in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. PLoS Pathog. 2022 Mar 25;18(3):e1010433. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010433. Online ahead of print.

Park E-A, Kim J, Shin MY, Park S-J. A polo-like kinase modulates cytokinesis and flagella biogenesis in Giardia lamblia. Parasit Vectors. 2021;14:182. doi:10.1186/s13071-021-04687-5

Park E-A, Kim J, Shin MY, Park S-J. A polo-like kinase modulates cytokinesis and flagella biogenesis in Giardia lamblia. Research Square. 2020;[preprint]. doi:10.21203/

Kim J, Park S-J. Role of gamma-giardin in ventral disc formation of Giardia lamblia. Parasit & Vectors. 2019:12:227. doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3478-8

Kim J, Park SJ. Roles of end-binding 1 protein and gamma-tubulin small complex in cytokinesis and flagella formation of Giardia lamblia. Microbiologyopen. 2018 Oct 14:e748. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.748. [Epub ahead of print]

McInally SG, Hagen KD, Nosala C, Williams J, Nguyen K, Booker J, Jones K, Dawson SC. Robust and stable transcriptional repression in Giardia using CRISPRi. BioRXive. 2018;358598. doi:10.1101/358598

Hardin WR, Li R, Xu J, Shelton AM, Alas GCM, Minin VN, Paredez AR. Myosin-independent cytokinesis in Giardia utilizes flagella to coordinate force generation and direct membrane trafficking. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1073/pnas.1705096114

Krtková J, Paredez AR. Use of Translation Blocking Morpholinos for Gene Knockdown in Giardia lamblia. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1565:123-140. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6817-6_11.

Robles-Martinez L, Mendez TL, Apodaca J, Das S. Glucosylceramide transferase in Giardia preferentially catalyzes the synthesis of galactosylceramide during encystation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2016 Nov 10. pii: S0166-6851(16)30132-3. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2016.11.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Hennessey KM, Smith TR, Xu JW, Alas GC, Ojo KK, Merritt EA, Paredez AR. Identification and Validation of Small-Gatekeeper Kinases as Drug Targets in Giardia lamblia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Nov 2;10(11):e0005107. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005107.

Krtková J, Thomas EB, Alas GC, Schraner EM, Behjatnia HR, Hehl AB, Paredez AR. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion. MBio. 2016 Aug 23;7(4). pii: e01003-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01003-16.

Paredez AR, Nayeri A, Xu JW, Krtková J, Cande WZ. Identification of obscure yet conserved actin-associated proteins in Giardia lamblia. Eukaryot Cell. 2014 Jun;13(6):776-84. doi: 10.1128/EC.00041-14. Epub 2014 Apr 11. Erratum in: Eukaryot Cell. 2014 Aug;13(8):1124.

Vicente JJ, Cande WZ. Mad2, Bub3 and Mps1 regulate chromosome segregation and mitotic synchrony in Giardia intestinalis, a binucleate protist lacking an Anaphase Promoting Complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2014 Jul 23. pii: mbc.E14-05-0975. [Epub ahead of print]

Kim J, Nagami S, Lee K-H, Park S-J. Characterization of Microtubule-Binding and Dimerization Activity of Giardia lamblia End-Binding 1 Protein. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(5):e97850. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097850

Mendez TL, Chatterjee AD, Duarte TT, Gazos-Lopes F, Robles-Martinez L, Roy D, Sun J, Maldonado RA, Roychowdhury S, Almeida IC, Das S. Glucosylceramide transferase activity is critical for encystation and viable cyst production by an intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. J Biol Chem. 2013;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.438416.

Gourguechon S, Holt LJ, Cande WZ. The Giardia cell cycle progresses independently of the anaphase-promoting complex. J Cell Sci. 2013 May 15;126(Pt 10):2246-55. doi: 10.1242/jcs.121632. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Woessner DJ, Dawson SC. The Giardia 'median body protein' is a ventral disc protein that is critical for maintaining a domed disc conformation during attachment. Eukaryot Cell. 2012 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print].

House SA, Richter DJ, Pham JK, Dawson SC. Giardia Flagellar Motility Is Not Directly Required to Maintain Attachment to Surfaces. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7(8):e1002167. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002167.

Garlapati S, Saraiya AA, Wang CC. A La Autoantigen Homologue Is Required for the Internal Ribosome Entry Site Mediated Translation of Giardiavirus. PLoS ONE 2011;6(3): e18263. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018263.

Carpenter ML, Cande WZ. Using morpholinos for gene knockdown in Giardia intestinalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2009 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print].


Garg A, Wesolowski D, Alonso D, Deitsch KW, Ben Mamoun C, Altman S. Targeting protein translation, RNA splicing, and degradation by morpholino-based conjugates in Plasmodium falciparum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Sep 8. pii: 201515864. [Epub ahead of print]

Augagneur Y, Jaubert L, Schiavoni M, Pachikara N, Garg A, Usmani-Brown S, Wesolowski D, Zeller S, Ghosal A, Cornillot E, Said HM, Kumar P, Altman S, Ben Mamoun C. Identification and functional analysis of the primary pantothenate transporter, PfPAT, of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 12;288(28):20558-67. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.482992. Epub 2013 May 31.

Augagneur Y, Wesolowski D, Tae HS, Altman S, Mamoun CB. Gene selective mRNA cleavage inhibits the development of Plasmodium falciparum. PNAS. 2012;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1073/pnas.1203516109 .


Lykins JD, Filippova EV, Halavaty AS, Minasov G, Zhou Y, Dubrovska I, Flores KJ, Ludmilla A Shuvalova LA, Ruan J, El Bissati K, Dovgin S, Roberts CW, Woods S, Moulton JD, Moulton H, McPhillie M, Muench SP, Fishwick CWG, Sabini E, Shanmugam D, Roos DS, McLeod R, Anderson WF, Ngô H. CSGID Solves Structures and Identifies Phenotypes for Five Enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018;[Epub] doi:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00352

McPhillie M, Zhou Y, El Bissati K, Dubey J, Lorenzi H, Capper M, Lukens AK, Hickman M, Muench S, Verma SK, Weber CR, Wheeler K, Gordon J, Sanders J, Moulton H, Wang K, Kim TK, He Y, Santos T, Woods S, Lee P, Donkin D, Kim E, Fraczek L, Lykins J, Esaa F, Alibana-Clouser F, Dovgin S, Weiss L, Brasseur G, Wirth D, Kent M, Hood L, Meunieur B, Roberts CW, Hasnain SS, Antonyuk SV, Fishwick C, McLeod R. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 14;6:29179. doi: 10.1038/srep29179.

Witola WH, Bauman B, McHugh M, Matthews K. Silencing of GRA10 protein expression inhibits Toxoplasma gondii intracellular growth and development. Parasitol Int. 2014 May 13. pii: S1383-5769(14)00059-2. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2014.05.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Zhou Y, Fomovska A, Muench S, Lai BS, Mui E, McLeod R. Spiroindolone that inhibits PfATPase4 is a potent, cidal inhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(3):1789-92. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02225-13. Epub 2013 Dec 23.

Lai BS, Witola WH, El Bissati KE, Zhou Y, Mui E, Fomovska A, McLeod R. Molecular target validation, antimicrobial delivery, and potential treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infections. PNAS. 2012;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1073/pnas.1208775109.


Chatterjee A, Ratner DM, Ryan CM, Johnson PJ, O'Keefe BR, Secor WE, Anderson DJ, Robbins PW, Samuelson J. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 7;10(8):e0135340. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135340. eCollection 2015.


Budzak J, Jones R, Tschudi C, Kolev NG, Rudenko G. An assembly of nuclear bodies associates with the active VSG expression site in African trypanosomes. Nat Commun. 2022 Jan 10;13(1):101. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-27625-6.

Arroyo-Olarte RD, Martínez I, Lujan E, Mendlovic F, Dinkova T, Espinoza B. Differential gene expression of virulence factors modulates infectivity of TcI Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Parasitol Res. 2020 Oct 2. doi: 10.1007/s00436-020-06891-1. Online ahead of print.

Goos C, Dejung M, Wehman AM, M-Natus E, Schmidt J, Sunter J, Engstler M, Butter F, Kramer S. Trypanosomes can initiate nuclear export co-transcriptionally. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Nov 12. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1136. [Epub ahead of print]

Ooi C-P, Smith TK, Gluenz E, Vasileva Wand NV, Vaughan S, Rudenko G. Blocking variant surface glycoprotein synthesis alters endoplasmic reticulum exit sites/Golgi homeostasis in Trypanosoma brucei. Traffic. 2018;[Epub] doi:10.1111/tra.12561

Hashimoto M, Nara T, Mita T, Mikoshiba K. Morpholino antisense oligo inhibits trans-splicing of pre-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor mRNA of Trypanosoma cruzi and suppresses parasite growth and infectivity. Parasit Internat. 2015;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.parint.2015.12.001

Preußer C, Rossbach O, Hung L-H, Li D, Bindereif A. Genome-wide RNA-binding analysis of the trypanosome U1 snRNP proteins U1C and U1-70K reveals cis/trans-spliceosomal network. Nucl Acids Res. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1093/nar/gku286

Orrego PR, Olivares H, Cordero EM, Bressan A, Cortez M, Sagua H, Neira I, González J, da Silveira JF, Yoshida N, Araya JE. A Cytoplasmic New Catalytic Subunit of Calcineurin in Trypanosoma cruzi and Its Molecular and Functional Characterization. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(1):e2676. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002676.

Kramer S, Marnef A, Standart N, Carrington M. Inhibition of mRNA maturation in trypanosomes causes the formation of novel foci at the nuclear periphery containing cytoplasmic regulators of mRNA fate. J Cell Sci. 2012 Jun 15;125(Pt 12):2896-909. doi: 10.1242/jcs.099275. Epub 2012 Feb 24.

Shi H, Chamond N, Djikeng A, Tschudi C, Ullu E. RNA interference in Trypanosoma brucei: the role of the amino-terminal RGG domain and the polyribosome association of Argonaute1. J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print].

Shi H, Tschudi C, Ullu E. Depletion of newly synthesized Argonaute1 impairs the RNAi response in Trypanosoma brucei. RNA. 2007 Jul;13(7):1132-9. Epub 2007 May 25.